"Fluoride chemicals are
not included in the list [of 'chemicals for drinking water treatment'].
This is due to ethical as well as medical considerations."
(Louis Sanchez, Directeur de la Protection de l'Environment,
August 25, 2000). [see their letter]
"Generally, in Germany
fluoridation of drinking water is forbidden. The relevant German
law allows exceptions to the fluoridation ban on application.
The argumentation of the Federal Ministry of Health against a
general permission of fluoridation of drinking water is the problematic
nature of compulsion medication." (Gerda Hankel-Khan,
Embassy of Federal Republic of Germany, September 16, 1999).
[see their letter]
"Fluoride has never been
added to the public water supplies in Luxembourg. In our views,
the drinking water isn't the suitable way for medicinal treatment
and that people needing an addition of fluoride can decide by
there own to use the most appropriate way, like the intake of
fluoride tablets, to cover their [daily] needs." (Jean-Marie
RIES, Head, Water Department, Administration De L'Environment,
May 3, 2000). [see
"We do not favor or recommend
fluoridation of drinking water. There are better ways of providing
the fluoride our teeth need." (Paavo Poteri, Acting
Managing Director, Helsinki Water, Finland, February 7, 2000).
of drinking water supplies has been practiced in Finland only
in one town, Kuopio, situated in eastern Finland and with a population
of about 80,000 people (1.6% of the Finnish population). Fluoridation
started in 1959 and finished in 1992 as a result of the resistance
of local population. The most usual grounds for the resistance
presented in this context were an individual's right to drinking
water without additional chemicals used for the medication of
limited population groups. A concept of "force-feeding"
was also mentioned.
Drinking water fluoridation
is not prohibited in Finland but no municipalities have turned
out to be willing to practice it. Water suppliers, naturally,
have always been against dosing of fluoride chemicals into water."
(Leena Hiisvirta, M.Sc., Chief Engineer, Ministry of Social
Affairs and Health, Finland, January 12, 1996.) [see
treatment has never been of use in Belgium and will never be
(we hope so) into the future. The main reason for that is the
fundamental position of the drinking water sector that it is
not its task to deliver medicinal treatment to people. This is
the sole responsibility of health services." (Chr. Legros,
Directeur, Belgaqua, Brussels, Belgium, February 28, 2000).
[see their letter]
"We are pleased to inform
you that according to the Danish Ministry of Environment and
Energy, toxic fluorides have never been added to the public water
supplies. Consequently, no Danish city has ever been fluoridated."
(Klaus Werner, Royal Danish Embassy, Washington DC, December
22, 1999). [see their letter]
"In Norway we had a rather
intense discussion on this subject some 20 years ago, and the
conclusion was that drinking water should not be fluoridated."
(Truls Krogh & Toril Hofshagen, Folkehelsa Statens institutt
for folkeheise (National Institute of Public Health) Oslo, Norway,
March 1, 2000). [see their letter]
"Drinking water fluoridation
is not allowed in Sweden...New scientific documentation or changes
in dental health situation that could alter the conclusions of
the Commission have not been shown." (Gunnar Guzikowski,
Chief Government Inspector, Livsmedels Verket -- National Food
Administration Drinking Water Division, Sweden, February 28,
2000). [see their letter]
"From the end of the 1960s
until the beginning of the 1970s drinking water in various places
in the Netherlands was fluoridated to prevent caries. However,
in its judgement of 22 June 1973 in case No. 10683 (Budding and
co. versus the City of Amsterdam) the Supreme Court (Hoge Road)
ruled there was no legal basis for fluoridation. After that judgement,
amendment to the Water Supply Act was prepared to provide a legal
basis for fluoridation. During the process it became clear that
there was not enough support from Parlement [sic] for this amendment
and the proposal was withdrawn." (Wilfred Reinhold,
Legal Advisor, Directorate Drinking Water, Netherlands, January
15, 2000). [see their letter]
"The water supply in Northern
Ireland has never been artificially fluoridated except in 2 small
localities where fluoride was added to the water for about 30
years up to last year. Fluoridation ceased at these locations
for operational reasons. At this time, there are no plans to
commence fluoridation of water supplies in Northern Ireland."
(C.J. Grimes, Department for Regional Development, Belfast,
November 6, 2000). [see
"Toxic fluorides have
never been added to the public water supplies in Austria."
(M. Eisenhut, Head of Water Department, Osterreichische Yereinigung
fur das Gas-und Wasserfach Schubertring 14, A-1015 Wien, Austria,
February 17, 2000). [see their letter]
"Since 1993, drinking
water has not been treated with fluoride in public water supplies
throughout the Czech Republic. Although fluoridation of drinking
water has not actually been proscribed it is not under consideration
because this form of supplementation is considered: